Sodom and Gomorrah are by-words in our modern society. An especially
wicked place is described as a "Sodom and Gomorrah." Pastors are
sometimes said to be preaching "fire and brimstone." And we have the
legal term sodomy for unnatural sex acts. These allusions, of course,
stem from the Biblical account of events that occurred in the days of
Abraham in Genesis 19.
these places ever exist and will they ever be found? Most scholars
think not. In his Anchor Bible Dictionary article on Sodom and
Gomorrah, M.J. Mulder concluded that they were,
Two legendary cities from
prehistoric Israel in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea…it is highly
uncertain, if not improbable, that the vanished cities of the
Pentapolis will ever be recovered (1992: 99, 102).
textbook on the history of Israel and Judah, Miller and Hayes state:
The Sodom and Gomorrah
story reflects yet another motif pattern known from extrabiblical
literature, that of divine beings who visit a city to test the
hospitality of its people and eventually destroy the inhospitable
city. One can compare in this regard the Greek myth of Baucis and
Philemon. The presence of such traditional motifs in the biblical
narratives raises the possibility that at least some of these
narratives are purely products of the storyteller’s art, which of
course raises serious questions about their usefulness for
historical reconstruction (1986:60).
Gomorrah were two of five cities referred to in Scripture as the
Cities of the Plain. From references to the "plain of the Jordan" (Gn
13:10), "the Valley of Siddim (the Salt Sea)" (Gn 14:3) and Abraham
looking down to see the Cities of the Plain from the area of Hebron (Gn
19:28), it is clear that the cities were located in the vicinity of
the Dead Sea. Since the mountains come close to the shore on both the
east and west, the cities must have been located either north or south
of the Dead Sea. Various commentators over the centuries have
suggested locations both north and south (Mulder 1992: 101–102). The
reference to "bitumen pits" in Genesis 14:10, however, tips the scale
in favor of a southern location (Howard 1984). Bitumen (a natural
petroleum product similar to asphalt) was commonly found in the
shallow southern basin of the Dead Sea in antiquity (Bilkadi 1984;
1994; Clapp 1936a: 901–902; 1936b: 341–42).
theory, repeated yet today, is that the Cities of the Plain were
located in the plain south of the Dead Sea and later covered by the
waters of the southern basin, never to be seen again. The level of the
Dead Sea has receded substantially in recent years, causing the
southern basin to dry up.i
Extensive exploration and activity in the area has produced no
evidence to indicate that there were ancient sites there (Rast 1987a:
until 1973 that solid archaeological evidence for locating the Cities
of the Plain was found. At that time an archaeological survey of the
area southeast of the Dead Sea was conducted by Walter Rast and Thomas
Schaub in conjunction with their work at Bab edh-Dhra, an Early Bronze
(ca. 3300–2000 BC) site on the east side of the Lisan penin-sula.ii
Rast and Schaub discovered four additional sites south of Bab edh-Dhra,
which they suggested might be related to the Cities of the Plain of
the Old Testament (Rast and Schaub 1974). Subsequent excavations at
Numeira, 13 km (8 mi) south of Bab edh-Dhra, have verified its close
affinity with Bab edh-Dhra. Follow-up work at the other three sites,
Safi, Feifa and Khanazir, however, has not been as rewarding.
at Safi, Feifa and Khanazir
and Schaub visited Es-Safi in 1973 they discovered a large Early
Bronze Age cemetery. To the east of the cemetery they observed wall
remains and Early Bronze sherds indicative of a settlement site (1974:
911). Unfortunately, in the years following their survey, homes have
been constructed on the site and "subsequent visits have been unable
to confirm the presence of a[n Early Bronze Age] town site" (Schaub
Less than a
month of excavation was carried out at Feifa and Khanazir, 16 December
1989–13 January 1990. An enormous Early Bronze Age cemetery was found
at Feifa by Rast and Schaub in 1973, as well as a fortified enclosure
(1974: 11–12). Upon excavation, the enclosure turned out to be an Iron
Age II (eighth century BC) fortress constructed over part of the Early
Bronze Age cemetery (de Vries 1991: 262; MacDonald 1997: 65). At
Khanazir, walls observed by Rast and Schaub in 1973 (1974: 12–14) were
in reality rectangular structures marking Early Bronze IV shaft tombs
(deVries 1991: 262; Rast 1992: 560; MacDonald 1997: 65; Schaub 1997b:
the locations of three of the Cities of the Plain remain elusive,
evidence is strong that the two most important—Sodom and Gomorrah—have
and Numeira are the only known inhabited towns in the region of the
Dead Sea between ca. 3000 and 900 BC. Moreover, Bab edh-Dhra is the
largest site from the pre-Hellenistic period in the area (Rast 1987b:
45). The conclusion that these sites are associated with the Cities of
the Plain is inescapable (Rast 1987a: 190–94; 1992: 561).
determining which archaeological site should be identified with which
Biblical place name, we begin with Zoar. Because Lot fled to Zoar to
escape the catastrophe (Gn 19:21–23), the town was spared from God’s
judgment. From later references to Zoar in the prophecies against Moab
(Is 15:5; Jer 48:34), we know that the town continued to exist. It is
further mentioned in various ancient references from the Hellenistic
period to the Middle Ages (Schaub 1997b: 63; Astour 1992; Howard
The most important source for locating the site is the Madaba map, a
mosaic map on the floor of a church in Madaba, Jordan, depicting
Palestine in the sixth century. Zoar is shown on the southeast shore
of the Dead Sea, just south of the Zared River (Wadi Hesa) (Donner
1992: 42, No. 18). This places ancient Zoar in the vicinity of modern
Safi, although its exact location is not known at present (Schaub
tells us that Lot and his daughters lived in a cave in the mountains
near Zoar (Gn 19:30). At the edge of the mountains just to the east of
Zoar, the Madaba Map depicts the sanctuary of St. Lot, a church built
in memory of Lot. H. Donner and E.A. Knauf discovered the ruins of the
church in 1983 (Donner 1992: 42), and it has since been excavated (Politis
1999). Built in front of a cave thought to be where Lot and his
daughters lived, the church is located 7 km (4 mi) northeast of Safi
on the north bank of the Wadi Hesa. The earliest evidence of
occupation at the site is from the Early Bronze Age.
Church of St. Lot, near
Safi, Jordan. In the center is the main apse of the church and
to the left is the entrance to the cave believed to be where Lot
and his daughters lived after they fled the destruction of Sodom (Gn
other four cities are always mentioned in pairs—Sodom and Gomorrah,
Admah and Zeboiim—it is logical to presume that Sodom would have been
located near Gomorrah and Admah near Zeboiim. Thus Bab edh-Dhra and
Numeira should be identified with one of these pairs, but which one?
the site to the north of Safi, Numeira, we can make a linguistic
connection with one of the Cities of the Plain. Many times ancient
names are preserved in modern Arabic place names. The consonants of
the name Gomorrah are (ayin) M R and the consonants of Numeira are N M
R. The ancient and modern names match, except for the first letter.
Initial laryngeals like the ayin in MR were commonly lost or
transformed in the process of time, or when they came over into other
languages or dialects. In this case, it is possible that nasalization
took place, so the ayin in Hebrew MR became the N in Arabic NMR (Shea
been called the lowest city in the world, being at an elevation of 220
m (720 ft) below sea level. Bab edh-Dhra is at about the same
elevation. The title of the world’s lowest city, however, must now go
to Numeira since it is situated at 280–290 m (920–950 ft) below sea
The site to
the north of Numeira, Bab edh-Dhra, would then be Sodom. Since Bab
edh-Dhra is the largest ancient ruin in the region it stands to reason
that it should be identified as Sodom, the most famous of the Cities
of the Plain. It was occupied throughout the Early Bronze Age for a
period of over 1,000 years.
Bab edh-Dhra town site
and cemeteries. Although the northern wall was lost due to
erosion, it is estimated that the size of the fortified area was
9–10 acres. There was occupation to the east, south and west of
the city walls as well. The main burial area throughout the more
than 1,000-year history of the town was Cemetery A to the
studies have shown that the level of the Dead Sea was at a low point
during the Early Bronze Age (Neev and Emery 1995: 62) and thus the
shallow basin, or "plain" south of the Dead Sea would have been dry
land and probably cultivated. iv
The location of the Early Bronze Age sites along the eastern edge of
the plain fits the Biblical description of the cities as being of the
plain. "Cities of the Plain" is in the construct state in the Hebrew,
which means that the word "cities" has a close association with the
Bab edh-Dhra—view east
along the south wall. Note the proximity of the mountains of
Moab in the background. The angels told Lot, "Flee to the
mountains or you will be swept away!" (Gn 19:17).
were not in the plain, or on the plain. If that were the case, a
different construction would have been used. Rather, the cities were
"of" the plain—they had a close association, or connection, with the
plain. They were doubtless dependent upon the plain for their
description of the Cities of the Plain in the Bible is in the account
of Lot separating from Abraham in Genesis 13:10–13. There, the plain
is described as being "well watered" as far as Zoar (Gn 13:10). The
Hebrew words translated "well watered" are kullah, an intensive form
of the verb meaning, "to be complete," and mašqeh, from the verb
meaning, "to give to drink" or "irrigate." The meaning of kullah
mašqeh, then, is to be completely and totally irrigated.
Paleobotanical studies have shown that there was a rich diversity of
crops grown at Bab edh-Dhra and Numeira. Most common were barley,
wheat, grapes, figs, lentils and flax. Less common were chickpeas,
peas, broad beans, dates and olives (McCreery 1980:52). Several of
these crops could only have been grown with the use of irrigation:
There is little doubt
that agriculture was an important component of the economic base of
the EB cities in the region and that irrigation was a key element of
the agricultural industry (McCreery 1981: 168; cf. p. 167, 1980:
that each of the five Cities of the Plain controlled the water from
the principal streams that flowed into the plain from the east.
When the two
angels came to Sodom to warn Lot of the impending doom, they found him
sitting in the city gate (Gn 19:1). This indicates that Sodom was
fortified. Bab edh-Dhra, which means "gate of the arm," had imposing
fortifications. The city wall, enclosing an area of 9–10 acres, was a
massive 7 m (23 ft) wide and made of stones and mud bricks (Schaub
1993: 134). Evidence for settlement was found outside the walls as
well. The total population at the time Bab edh-Dhra met its end was
between 600 and 1,200 (Rast 1987b: 47; 1992: 560; Schaub 1993: 134).
Within the walls were a sanctuary on a high spot at the southwest end
of the city, domestic and industrial areas, and a gateway on the
was comprised of two flanking towers with massive stone and timber
foundations. They were ca. 4 m (13 ft) wide and 10 m (33 ft) long,
with a 3–4 m (10–13 ft) passageway between. When Lot saw the angels,
"he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face to the ground" (Gn
19:1). He then invited them to his home. Houses at Bab edh-Dhra were
of the typical Early Bronze Age "broad room" style. They were
rectangular, being about 5 m (16 ft) long and 2–3 m (7–10 ft) wide
with an entrance in one of the long sides (Rast 1987b: 46).
City gate at Bab
edh-Dhra. Located on the northeast side of the site, this is
the gate that was in use at the end of the life of the city. The
angels met Lot in the city gate (Gn 19:1–3). The arrow shows the
direction of entry.
a town smaller than Bab edh-Dhra, the city wall was found to be about
4 m (13 ft) wide. Inside were houses very much like those at Bab
edh-Dhra. It appears that the residents of Numeira buried their dead
in the enormous cemetery at Bab edh-Dhra since no cemetery was
discovered at Numeira. Supporting this hypothesis is the fact that
pottery from Numeira was found in burials at Bab edh-Dhra (Rast 1987b:
tells of not one, but two, traumatic events that occurred in the final
days of Sodom and Gomorrah. Genesis 14 describes an attack against the
Cities of the Plain by a coalition of four Mesopotamian kings. The
battle was joined in the Valley of Siddim, probably at the northern
end of the plain. Following their rout of the army of the Cities of
The four kings seized all
the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their food; then they went
away. They also carried off Abram’s nephew Lot and his possessions,
since he was living in Sodom (Gn 14:11).
Genesis 19, we have the record of the final destruction when, because
of their sin,
The Lord rained down
burning sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah—from the Lord out of the
heavens. Thus He overthrew those cities and the entire plain,
including all those living in the cities—and also the vegetation of
the land. (Gn 19:24–25).
chronological data given in Genesis, it is possible to approximate the
time span between the sacking of Sodom and Gomorrah by the kings of
Mesopotamia and the final destruction of the cities. The account of
the attack of the Mesopotamian coalition comes between the time when
Abraham left Haran when he was 75 (12:4) and the conception of Ishmael
when Abraham was 85 (16:3). Since Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed at
the time of the conception of Isaac when Abraham was 99 (17:1, 21:5),
the sacking of Sodom and Gomorrah by the kings of Mesopotamia took
place between 14 and 24 years before the final holocaust. There is
evidence at both Bab edh-Dhra and Numeira for two destructions.
The author at the west
gate of Bab edh-Dhra, view east. The main gate was located
here throughout most of the history of the city, giving easy
access to the agricultural fields in the plain below. About 25
years before the final destruction, however, Bab edh-Dhra suffered
a destruction that caused the citizens to purposely block up the
west gate and construct a new gate on the northeast. This can be
linked to the attack of the coalition of Mesopotamian kings
described in Genesis 14.
Plan of the excavated
areas at Numeira. On the south is a 4m (13 ft) town wall with
an adjacent open area. North of the wall is a residential area,
with blocks of houses separated by an east-west street. The entire
area was covered with a thick layer of ash from the firestorm that
totally destroyed the town.
Destruction at Bab edh-Dhra
most of the life of Bab edh-Dhra the main entrance to the city was
located on the west side, giving access to the plain below. Within the
last 100 years of occupation, the west wall and gate area underwent a
major destruction (Schaub and Rast 1984: 46; Rast 1987b: 47; Schaub
1997a: 249). This resulted in the citizens intentionally blocking up
the west gate and constructing a new gate in the northeast (Schaub and
Rast 1984: 46; Schaub 1993: 134). The new gate was founded on a meter
of burned destruction debris resulting from the calamity (Rast and
Schaub 1980: 28; Rast 1981a: 20).
thereafter, at the close of the Early Bronze III period, the fortified
city at Bab edh-Dhra met a final fiery end. Even though the site is
badly eroded, enough evidence remained in several areas to show the
severity of the disaster. The northeast gate was destroyed by fire as
indicated by charcoal, broken and fallen bricks, and areas of ash (Rast
1981: 21). There was a massive pile-up of mud brick in the west end
suggesting heavy destruction in this part of the city (Rast 1981: 31).
At this time the city wall fell and the mud brick superstructure of
the sanctuary collapsed, apparently after burning (Rast 1992: 560).
The many stone and boulder fields within the city came from walls that
were disrupted and transported down slope (Donahue 1980: 51; 1985:
the destruction, there was occupation at Bab edh-Dhra in the Early
Bronze IV period, but almost exclusively outside the destroyed Early
Bronze III fortified town. Following this brief period of extramural
settlement, the site was permanently abandoned.
Destruction at Numeira
a better-preserved site than Bab edh-Dhra, the evidence is even more
dramatic. Unlike Bab edh-Dhra, the remnants of the town did not suffer
erosional damage. Also in contrast to Bab edh-Dhra, Numeira was
occupied for less than 100 years (Rast 1981: 42; Rast and Schaub 1980:
On the east
side of Numeira is a large tower 7.4 m (24 ft) wide and at least 10.0
m (33 ft) long (Coogan 1984: 80). It was built over an earlier
domestic phase that suffered a heavy burning.
This earliest phase of
occupation was destroyed by fire; the walls and rooms that collapsed
over the ashy destruction debris consisted of considerable mud brick
detritus, many large wooden beams, and carbonized grasses and reeds
still tied by the ropes that had held them together as thatch. On
the occupational surface of Room V (NE 10/2 Locus 5) was the
skeleton of a mature male who had perished in the destruction of
this earliest phase (Coogan 1984: 79).
Excavation area at
Numeira as it appeared following the 1977 season. Occupied for
less than a century, the remains were better preserved at Numeira
than at Bab edh-Dhra. Textiles, string, rope, seeds, and even a
cluster of grapes survived amazingly well. Every room was filled
with ash and burned debris from the dreadful holocaust that
overtook the city.
evidence was found in Room 4 just inside the southern wall. Some 20–30
cm (8–12 in) below the final phase was an earlier phase with fragments
of human bones (Rast and Schaub 1980: 44).
As with Bab
edh-Dhra, Numeira was violently destroyed at the end of the Early
Bronze III period. The type of pottery lying on the floors of the
houses confirms that it met its end at the same time as Bab edh-Dhra (Rast
and Schaub 1980: 45). A thick layer of burnt debris was found in
almost every area excavated (Rast 1981: 41; 1987b: 47). Michael Coogan,
one of the excavators of Numeira, described what the archaeologists
Under the topsoil (desert
pavement) and a naturally deposited windblown sandy soil, the entire
area was covered by the ashy debris of the final destruction of the
town, up to 0.40 m in depth. This ash contained fragments of wooden
beams that had supported the roofs of the dwellings and lay
immediately over the latest occupational layer within each room,
sealing the material beneath it. Not infrequently there was mud
brick detritus over the ash, which had resulted from the collapse of
the mud brick superstructures after the final conflagration (1984:
On the inner
side of the tower more startling evidence was found for the tragedy
that overcame Numeira.
final layer was a thick (0.50–0.10 m) layer of ashy debris, in which
were found the skeletons of two mature males who perished in the final
destruction of the town; over this was mud brick detritus and rock
fall (Coogan 1984: 80).
In Room 4
just inside the southern wall were fragments of human bones above and
on the final surface (Rast and Schaub 1980: 44). Numeira met a tragic
end and was never again occupied.
possible to estimate the time span between the earlier destruction and
the final destruction at Numeira. The area adjacent to the inner
(west) face of the tower was used as an outdoor activity area. More
than 20 alternating layers of chaff and carbonized material were found
between the earlier domestic phase and the final destruction layer.
The nature of the layers suggests seasonal activity (Coogan 1984: 80).
Thus, we can estimate the time span between the two destructions as
being a little more than 20 years, which agrees with the Biblical time
frame (14 to 24 years) between the events of Genesis 14 and 19 (Shea
In 1975 a
great archive of clay tablets dating to 2400–2350 BC was discovered at
Tell Mardikh, ancient Ebla, in northern Syria (Archi 1997). One of the
tablets is a geographic atlas listing 289 place names. An analysis of
two segments of the list by William Shea indicates that they are sites
located in Palestine, possibly places visited by merchants from Ebla (Shea
1983). The second segment, sites 188–219, traces a route from Syria
south through the central hill country of Cisjordan, along the western
shore of the Dead Sea, south of the Dead Sea Plain and then north
along the east side of the Plain and Dead Sea.
Route traced by the
Ebla Geographic Atlas. Site 210 is Admah and site 211
Sodom—the only known occurrence of names of the Cities of the
Plain outside the Bible.
In the area
corresponding to the east side of the Dead Sea Plain there are two
places named—Number 210, Admah, and Number 211, Sodom. If Shea’s
readings are correct, this would be the only confirmed mention of the
Cities of the Plain outside the Bible. But why were not the other
three cities, Gomorrah, Zoar, and Zeboiim, mentioned? The excavations
at Numeira perhaps can shed some light on that question. These
excavations revealed that Numeira (=Gomorrah) was in existence for
only a short period of time, less than 100 years. It appears that the
Ebla Atlas was composed prior to the founding of Numeira. The same may
true of Zoar and Zeboiim.
been some corroborating evidence from Bab edh-Dhra for this proposed
Among the cultural items
that reflect foreign contact…the majority—including architectural
features, cylinder seal impressions, jewelry, some forms of pottery,
and a carved bull’s head—show Syrian, if not Mesopotamian, influence
(Schaub 1993: 135).
i. Large pools of water
can be observed in the former area of the southern basin, but these
are artificial ponds associated with thriving potash industries
operated by Israel and Jordan. Water from the Dead Sea is directed
to the pools (salt pans) where it is evaporated, allowing valuable
salts to be harvested.
ii. The Lisan peninsula
divides the main, northern, body of the Dead Sea from the shallow
iii. We find such
references only for Zoar. There are no later references to the other
Cities of the Plain, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah or Zeboiim, as living
iv. The "Valley of Siddim
(the Salt Sea)" in Genesis 14:3, 8 and 10 is undoubtedly the shallow
basin south of the Lisan Peninsula that, in later times when the
level of the Dead Sea was higher, became an extension of the Dead
Sea. The valley had many pits of hemor or bitumen. This asphalt-like
petroleum product was commonly found in the southern basin of the
Dead Sea throughout antiquity. The name "Siddim" derives from the
verb saded which means, "to harrow." Wherever the verb is used in
the Old Testament, it is in an agricultural context (Jb 39:10; Is
28:24; Hos 10:11) (Howard 1988a).
v. It is possible that
these two events, the attack of the coalition of Mesopotamian kings
described in Genesis 14 and the destruction of the Cities of the
Plain described in Genesis 19, were significant contributing factors
in the demise of the Early Bronze III culture in Canaan.
1984 Bitumen—A History.
Aramco World November–December: 2–9.
1994 Bulls From the Sea.
Aramco World July–August: 20–31.
1936a Geology and
Bitumens of the Dead Sea Area. Bulletin of Petroleum Geologists 20:
1936b The Site of Sodom
and Gomorrah. American Journal of Archaeology 40: 323–44.
1984 Numeira 1981.
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 255: 75–81.
1980 Geology. Pp. 47–52
in Preliminary Report of the 1979 Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain,
Jordan, eds. W.E. Rast and R.T. Schaub. Bulletin of the
American Schools of Oriental Research 240: 21–61.
1985 Hydrologic and
Topographic Change During and After Early Bronze Occupation at Bab
edh-Dhra. Pp. 131–40 in Studies in the History and Archaeology
of Jordan 2, ed. A. Hadidi. Amman: Department of Antiquities.
1992 The Mosaic Map of
Madaba. Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Pharaos.
Howard, D.M., Jr.
1984 Sodom and Gomorrah
Revisited. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27:
1988a Siddim, Valley of.
Pp. 499–500 in The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 4, ed.
G.W. Bromily. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans.
1988b Zoar. P. 1203 in
The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 4, ed. G.W. Bromily.
Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans.
1997 Southern Ghors and
Northeast Arabah. Pp 64–66 in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology
in the Near East 5, ed. E.M. Meyers. New York: Oxford
1980 Paleobotany. Pp.
52–53 in Preliminary Report of the 1979 Expedition to the Dead Sea
Plain, Jordan, eds. W.E. Rast and R.T. Schaub. Bulletin of the
American Schools of Oriental Research 240: 21–61.
1981 Flotation of the Bab
edh-Dhra and Numeira Plant Remains. Pp. 165–69 in The Southeastern
Dead Sea Plain Expedition: An Interim Report of the 1977
Season, ed. W.E. Rast and R.T. Schaub. Annual of the American
Schools of Oriental Research 46, ed. J.A. Callaway. Cambridge MA:
American Schools of Oriental Research.
Miller, J.M., and Hayes,
1986 A History of Ancient
Israel and Judah. Philadelphia: Westminster.
1992 Sodom and Gomorrah.
Pp. 99–103 in The Anchor Bible Dictionary 6, ed. D.N. Freedman. New
Neev, D., and Emery, K.O.
1995 The Destruction of
Sodom, Gomorrah, and Jericho: Geological, Climatological, and
Archaeological Background. New York: Oxford University Press.
Polotis, Konstantinos D.
1999 Of Agios Lot at Deir
Ain Abata, Jordan. Bible and Spade 12: 87–89.
1981 Settlement at
Numeira. Pp. 35–44 in The Southeastern Dead Sea Plain Expedition: An
Interim Report of the 1977 Season, ed. W.E. Rast and R.T.
Schaub. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research
46, ed. J.A. Callaway. Cambridge MA: American Schools of Oriental
1987a Bab edh-Dhra and
the Origin of the Sodom Saga. Pp. 185–201 in Archaeology and
Biblical Interpre- tation, ed. L.G. Perdue, L.E. Tombs and G.L.
Johnson. Atlanta: John Knox.
1987b Bronze Age Cities
Along the Dead Sea. Archaeology 40: 42–49.
1992 Bab edh-Dhra . Pp.
559–61 in The Anchor Bible Dictionary 1, ed. D.N. Freedman. New
Rast, W.E., and Schaub, R.T.
1974 Survey of the
Southeastern Plain of the Dead Sea, 1973. Annual of the Department
of Antiquities of Jordan 19: 5–53, 175–85.
1980 Preliminary Report
of the 1979 Expedition to the Dead Sea Plain, Jordan. Bulletin of
the American Schools of Oriental Research 240: 21–61.
1992 Safi. Pp. 895–96 in
The Anchor Bible Dictionary 5, ed. D.N. Freedman. New York:
1993 Bab edh-Dhra . Pp.
130–36 in The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the
Holy Land 1, ed. E. Stern. New York: Simon & Schuster.
1997a Bab edh-Dhra . Pp.
248–51 in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East 1,
ed. E.M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press.
1997b Southeast Dead Sea
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Near East 5, ed. E.M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University
Schaub, R.T., and Rast, W.E.
1984 Preliminary Report
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the American Schools of Oriental Research 254: 35–60.
1988 Numeira. Archaeology
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1991 Archaeology in
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