The Resurrection of Jesus Christ/Part 1
By: The John Ankerberg Show
|By: Dr. John Ankerberg and Dr. John Weldon; ©1996|
|The resurrection of Christ is central to either establishing or disproving the Christian religion. Years ago, the great rationalist Dr. Guignebert, professor of History of Christianity at the Sorbonne and honorary associate of the Rationalist Press Association of Great Britain, repudiated the idea of Christ’s resurrection, along with all miracles. Nevertheless, he stated, “There would have been no Christianity if the belief in the resurrection had not been founded and systematized.” In other words, the resurrection is vital because upon the resurrection of Christ the entirety of Christianity and its claim to truth either stands or falls.|
The Most Profound Issue for All Time
- 1 Why is the resurrection so important?
- 2 Did Jesus clearly claim He would rise from the dead?
- 3 How does Jesus’ death give evidence for the resurrection?
- 4 How does the burial of Christ supply evidence for His resurrection?
- 5 Why is the empty tomb compelling evidence for Jesus’ resurrection?
- 6 Notes
Why is the resurrection so important?
The resurrection of Christ is central to either establishing or disproving the Christian religion. Years ago, the great rationalist Dr. Guignebert, professor of History of Christianity at the Sorbonne (one of the most important professorships in all of France) and honorary associate of the Rationalist Press Association of Great Britain, repudiated the idea of Christ’s resurrection, along with all miracles. Nevertheless, he stated, “There would have been no Christianity if the belief in the resurrection had not been founded and systematized.”
In other words, the resurrection is vital because upon the resurrection of Christ the entirety of Christianity and its claim to truth either stands or falls. In the information that follows, you will have the opportunity to examine the evidence, critique it, and decide for yourself whether biblical Christianity is true – including all that implies.
Did Jesus clearly claim He would rise from the dead?
The first fact to establish is that Jesus Christ truly claimed He would rise from the dead. There must be no mistaking His claim, because it is unique in all history. No one else ever made such claims because no sane or rational person would dare do so. Only a small handful of self-deceived men have ever even suggested they might actually rise physically from the dead – and their claims were eventually proven false. So no one in human history did what Jesus did. He repeatedly and publicly predicted His death and resurrection, not only giving the specific manner of His death, but also the specific day of His resurrection. Think about this.
Who else in all human history ever repeatedly announced He would come back from the dead? Who else predicted He would do so on a very specific day – the third day after His death? In the field of comparative religion, this immediately places Christianity in the position of uniqueness.
What if the Pope publicly declared that he would shortly be executed and rise from the dead on the third day? Or if Billy Graham, Donald Trump or the president of the United States made the same claim?
What if your mother or father – or son or daughter – made such a claim? Because we know that the possibility of any person rising from the dead is zero, we would immediately know that something had gone wrong and that the person was either deluded or ill. No one ever rationally makes astounding claims which he knows he cannot possibly fulfill.
But Jesus did. On numerous occasions. And He gave specific details. Early in His ministry, after the cleansing of the temple, He told the Jews in Jerusalem, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up” (John 2:19).
Before His Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem, Jesus predicted: “Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem; and the Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, and they will condemn Him to death, and will deliver Him to the Gentiles to mock and scourge and crucify Him, and on the third day He will be raised up” (Matt. 20:18-19).
After Jesus’ transfiguration, He again predicted He would be raised from the dead: “The Son of Man is going to be delivered into the hands of men; and they will kill Him, and He will be raised on the third day” (Matt. 17:22-23; see also Mark 9:31).
Even prior to His crucifixion, when the time was becoming short for His claims to either be proven or refuted, He did not waiver. Jesus again emphasized and predicted that on the third day He would rise from the dead: “And He took the twelve aside and said to them, ‘Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and all things which are written through the prophets about the Son of Man will be accomplished. For He will be delivered to the Gentiles, and will be mocked and mistreated and spit upon, and after they have scourged Him, they will kill Him; and the third day He will rise again’” (Luke 18:31-33; see also Mark 10:34).
Jesus even predicted the specific day of His death by crucifixion – on the Jewish Passover: “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be delivered up for crucifixion” (Matt. 26:2).
Immediately after the Last Supper, when the disciples had gone to the Mount of Olives, Jesus again predicted His resurrection and provided even more startling predictions about the behavior of others: “Then Jesus said to them, ‘You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, “I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered.” But after I have been raised, I will go before you to Galilee’” (Matt. 26:31-32; see also Mark 14:28).
Now consider for a moment what you have just read. On all the above occasions – and more – Jesus predicted that He would die and be raised from the dead. He also gave additional startling claims or predictions:
- The resurrection from the dead would be performed by Jesus’ own power (John 2:19; 10:18).
- He predicted that He would endure many sufferings before His death (Mark 8:31).He would be mocked, mistreated, spit on, and scourged or whipped (Luke 18:31-33).
- He predicted that rejection by the Jewish elders and chief priests would be involved (Mark 8:31).
- He predicted the events would transpire in Jerusalem (Matt. 20:18).
- He predicted the chief priests and scribes would condemn Him to death but deliver Him to the Romans (Matt. 20:18-19).
- He predicted He would fulfill all the Old Testament prophecies concerning the Messiah’s death and resurrection (Luke 18:31).
- He predicted He would die by crucifixion (Matt. 26:2).
- The crucifixion would occur on the day of the Passover (Matt. 26:2).
- He predicted all the disciples would fall away, despite the fact they all gave strong emotional protestations to the contrary (Matt. 26:31-35).
- He predicted, to the exact day, when He would return from the dead, “on the third day” (Luke 18:33).
How does a mere man know such things? How could Jesus be so specific? How could He be certain He would not die by natural or accidental death? Or be murdered by someone or killed in a war? How did He know He would die by crucifixion on the Passover in Jerusalem? Why not in one of a dozen different locations or on one of a hundred different days? How did He know every apostle – to the last man – would desert Him? How could Jesus possibly claim He would fulfill “all things which are written through the prophets about the Son of Man” (Luke 18:31), or that in His own power He would conquer death? (See John 2:19; 10:18.) How could He predict the exact day He would rise – not to mention all the rest? Had He failed on any one of these predictions, He would have been shown to be wrong, and all His incredible claims about Himself – not the least of which is that He was God (John 5:16-18; 10:27-33) – would have proven false. Indeed, claiming to be God leaves one very few options. But Jesus was not wrong even once! No one has ever proven a falsehood or error in the teachings of Jesus.
We think there is only one explanation: Jesus is who He claimed – the divine Savior of the world, God incarnate, the One to whom our allegiance is due. In the material that follows, we will evidence for this conclusion.
How does Jesus’ death give evidence for the resurrection?
If it can be established that Jesus did die on the cross and was seen alive after His death by many credible witnesses, no one can logically doubt He was resurrected from the dead. The evidence may be ignored, but it cannot be denied. As difficult as it may be for some people to fathom, no other logical choice exists. The noted philosopher David Hume once remarked, “That a dead man should come to life has never been observed in any age or country.” So, if Jesus Christ provided evidence that has convinced over a billion people throughout history that He actually did rise from the dead, it is clearly the most momentous event ever. But before we can examine the resurrection appearances, we must first prove beyond all doubt that Jesus really died on the cross.
That Jesus really died is doubted by no objective observer familiar with the evidence. In his Ancient Evidence for the Life of Jesus, Dr. Gary Habermas points out that historical evidence exists for the death of Christ even from non-Christian sources, including Cornelius Tacitus (AD 55-120) whom some acknowledge as the greatest historian of ancient Rome; the noted Jewish historian Josephus (AD 37-97); the early (Tannaitic) Talmud; and other accounts. “Of all the events in Jesus’ life, more ancient sources specifically mention His death than any other single occurrence. Of the thirty-nine ancient sources, twenty-two relate this fact, often with details. Eleven of these sources are non-Christian, which exhibits an incredible amount of interest in this event.”
If we examine the details surrounding the crucifixion we can better understand why no one can logically doubt that Jesus really died.
Detail 1: Jesus was crucified publicly according to standard Roman practice which was both severe and chillingly efficient (John 19:18). Condemned criminals were deliberately placed on public display as a warning to others that they must obey Roman law and authority. Thus, the events were very plain and very public: A squad of four Roman executioners put Jesus to death in front of a large crowd.
Detail 2: The soldiers maintained a careful watch below the cross as indicated by their casting lots for Jesus’ garments. Matthew mentions “they kept watch over him there” (Matt. 27:36 NIV) and that “the centurion and those with him… were guarding Jesus” (Matt. 27:54). Crucifixions were so horrible that guards were necessary lest family and friends remove the man from the cross and spare his horrible torment. Part of the soldiers’ sworn duty was to make certain the condemned prisoners died.
Detail 3: Dozens of Jesus’ friends and enemies watched Him as He died upon the cross. Everyone present heard His death cry (see Mark 15:39-41; John 19:25-30, 34).
Detail 4: The crucifixion occurred on Friday. However, it was against Jewish law for the body of a condemned man to remain on the cross on the Sabbath day (Saturday). Therefore the Jews requested of Pilate that the prisoners’ legs be broken which would cause them to suffocate quickly (John 19:31). They could then, according to Jewish custom, be removed from the cross before the Sabbath began at 6 P.M. Friday. Pilate granted the request and the soldiers came and broke the legs of the two men beside Jesus (John 19:32).
Detail 5: These soldiers, who were from practice accustomed to determining whether a crucified man was dead or alive, immediately recognized that Jesus was dead: “When they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs” (John 19:33, cf., verse 36; Numbers 9:12; Psa. 34:20).
Detail 6: Because it was unusual, if not rare, for a man to die by crucifixion this quickly – and to be doubly sure Jesus was dead – emphatic steps were taken. A soldier pierced Jesus’ side with a spear “and immediately there came out blood and water” (John 19:34). This is medical confirmation that the sword had pierced Jesus’ heart and that Jesus was dead.
Detail 7: Pilate had the centurion confirm that Jesus had died. The only basis upon which Pilate could, by law, release the body to Joseph of Arimathea for burial was to verify the death of Jesus: “[He] … went boldly to Pilate and asked for Jesus’ body. Pilate was surprised to hear that he was already dead. Summoning the centurion, he asked him if Jesus had already died. When he learned from the centurion that it was so, he gave the body to Joseph” (Mark 15:43-45 NIV).
Detail 8: Jesus’ death was directly observed by the apostle John who recorded the entire series of events, including the spear thrust and the death cry. John wrote: “And he who has seen has borne witness, and his witness is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you also may believe” (John 19:35). In other words, John wanted to be absolutely sure that his readers understood Jesus had died on the cross. And because Jesus had died, there is simply no way to account for the subsequent resurrection appearances than by the resurrection itself.
Now consider all that Jesus went through in the events surrounding His crucifixion. He underwent six trials, which included horrible beatings and scourging. This alone killed some men. He carried the heavy beam of the cross (or part of it) part of the way to His crucifixion site. He underwent all the unspeakable tortures of the crucifixion itself. He had a Roman sword thrust through His side, piercing His heart. His death was then confirmed by Roman soldiers. It was confirmed again by the centurion to Pilate.
To think Jesus never died is ludicrous. Consider one description of a typical crucifixion:
- The condemned man was invariably scourged, and men were known to die under that punishment alone, so severe were the wounds inflicted by this cruel cat-o’-nine-tails inset with pieces of metal. It is possible that Jesus suffered this punishment both from the Jewish and from the Roman authorities (Matthew 26:67ff.; John 19:1). Thereafter, he had to carry the patibulum of his cross, and was led out under armed guard to die….
- Heart and lungs… were put under immense strain by the position of the crucifixion. When the torture was deemed to have gone on long enough, or in order to ensure that the man was dead, the soldiers would perform the crurifragium, or breaking of the legs. This meant that the man, if still alive, could no longer hoist himself [in order to breathe] and would soon expire.
- The physical effects of crucifixion were appalling. Of all death it is the most lingering and agonizing. The unnatural position of the body made every movement a pain. The suspension of the whole body on jagged iron nails (one dating from AD 50 has recently been discovered in Jerusalem) driven through the most sensitive nerve centers of the wrists and ankles, insured constant exquisite torture. The wounds of the nails and the wheals from the lash soon became inflamed and even gangrenous. The body’s position hindered circulation and caused indescribable pain in the chest. A raging thirst set in, brought on by the burning sun. The flies were thick around the victim. The agony of crucifixion was terrible beyond words.
Indeed, survival from crucifixions was unknown; just as today, men simply do not survive the firing squad, electric chair, lethal injection, or gas chamber. Because the law has decreed the prisoner’s death, even if a first attempt fails, procedures are repeated until death occurs. But death from crucifixion was just as certain as any modern method of execution; there was no escape.
- I know of only one instance in ancient literature which is remotely comparable. Josephus (Vita, 75) tells of a time when he saw a number of captives being crucified; and, noticing three of his friends among them, he asked Titus, the Roman commander, for a reprieve. This was granted, and the men were taken down at once. It seems that they had only just been crucified, but despite being given every care by the most expert physicians available, two of the three died…. There can be no doubt that Jesus was dead.
Further, those who removed the body and buried it would certainly have noticed any life, on Jesus’ part. Had He been alive, they certainly would not have proceeded to bury Him; they would have done all in their power to save Him. But the historical accounts agree that Jesus was buried according to Jewish custom, the body wrapped with 75 pounds of spices and linen (John 19:39 NIV).
All four evangelists say the same: Mark says that Jesus died (Mark 15:37). Matthew says Jesus died (Matt. 27:50). Luke says Jesus died (Luke 23:46). John says Jesus died (John 19:30). The fact that “Christ died” is repeated a dozen times in Acts and the epistles.
There is absolutely no doubt that Jesus Christ died on the cross. There is also no doubt He was later seen alive by dozens of eyewitnesses in many different locations over a period of 40 days.
How does the burial of Christ supply evidence for His resurrection?
The facts surrounding the burial of Christ give further proof that not only was Christ dead, but it would have been absolutely impossible for anyone to take the body. Even if Jesus had somehow survived crucifixion, the burial wrappings alone would have killed him. In John 19:38-42 (NIV), the apostle describes how Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus came and removed Jesus’ body from the cross and wrapped it in 75 pounds of linen and spices, according to Jewish custom. This meant Jesus’ body was literally encased in this material – something like an Egyptian mummy.
Further, the place where Jesus was buried was common knowledge. It had been observed by both Jesus’ friends and enemies (Matt. 27:61, 66). Once Jesus was entombed, extraordinary procedures were undertaken to make certain that the body could not be moved or stolen. Jesus’ enemies were well aware of His prediction that He would resurrect from the dead on the third day. As far as they were concerned, the only manner in which this could come about would be if the disciples were to steal the body. Therefore, they wanted to be absolutely certain that no one could even approach the tomb. Matthew reports what happened:
- The chief priests and the Pharisees gathered together with Pilate, and said, “Sir, we remember that when He was still alive that deceiver said, ‘After three days I am to rise again.’ Therefore, give orders for the grave to be made secure until the third day, lest the disciples come and steal Him away and say to the people, ‘He has risen from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.” Pilate said to them, “You have a guard; go, make it as secure as you know how.” And they went and made the grave secure, and along with the guard they set a seal on the stone (27:62-66).
To safeguard their interests, the authorities both requested and secured a Roman guard next to the tomb. They made it as secure as they could, rolling a massive stone in front of the entrance. They placed the official seal connecting the stone and the grave. The stone could not be moved without breaking the seal. The Roman seal not only carried the weight of Roman penal authority behind it, but would also indicate any tampering. “The sealing was done in the presence of the Roman guards who were left in charge to protect the stamp of Roman authority and power.” These events make it impossible that someone could have stolen the body of Jesus.
First, consider the gravestone, called a gloal. These massive stones were used as protection for the deceased against both man and beast. They usually weighed not less than a ton nor more than two tons.
In this case, a two-ton stone was probably selected because of the fear the disciples might attempt to steal the body in order to “fulfill” Jesus’ prediction of rising from the dead. The Jews were told to make the tomb as secure as they knew how and they did so. An indication of this can be seen from a phrase written in parentheses in the codex Bezae manuscript currently in the Cambridge library. This phrase, written next to Mark 16:4, states that the stone against the tomb was one “which twenty men could not roll away.” The apostle Mark says the stone was extremely large (Mark 16:4).
Second, the presence of the Roman guard was a further guarantee the body could not be stolen. These soldiers, who routinely participated in crucifixions, were not the caliber of men to allow someone to steal the body. Nor would they foolishly risk their own lives by sleeping on the job, as the Jewish leaders bribed them to say (Matt. 28:11-15). Indeed, it was certain death for a Roman sentinel to sleep at his post. George Currie refers to the discipline of the Roman guard noting that, “The punishment for quitting [one’s] post was death according to the laws (dion. hal, antiq. rom. viii.79). The most famous discourse on the strictness of camp discipline is that of Polybius (vi.37-38) which indicates that the fear of punishments produced faultless attention to duty, especially in the night watches.” Additional ancient testimony indicates that the death penalty was required for desertion, disobedience in wartime, losing or disposing of one’s arms, or taking flight when the example would influence others.
Given the penalties each Roman guard knew would be incurred, plus the commanding weaponry each guard carried, plus their extensive military training and expertise, plus their fanatical devotion to the Roman seal – all of these facts and more indicate with certainty no human source could have removed the body. This is precisely why it took nothing less than an angel from heaven to frighten the guards away (Matt. 28:2-4).
This was also probably the first time in Roman history that a Roman guard had been assigned to watch the grave of a publicly crucified “criminal.” Guards were not normally posted at the gravesites of condemned prisoners because the condemned did not ordinarily claim they would rise from the dead – nor did their claims so seriously draw the attention of the religious leaders of the day who feared the consequences of a possible conspiracy. So everything humanly possible had been done to make certain the body could not be stolen. Rome simply didn’t want any more trouble from the Jews, who were already trouble enough. So the first thing the guard would have done is to inspect the tomb and make certain everything was in order – that the body was still there.
But later, those same soldiers reported the tomb they were guarding was now empty (Matt. 28:11)!
Why is the empty tomb compelling evidence for Jesus’ resurrection?
Remember, everyone saw Jesus die. Everyone knew where He was buried. Many witnesses saw His body placed in the tomb, and later, the great rock rolled across the entrance and the Roman seal and Roman guard placed on duty to secure it.
But what is most relevant is this: No one at all, at any time, at any place, has ever seriously doubted that the tomb was found empty. Every critic, every critical theory, accepts the fact of the empty tomb. As Dr. Wilbur Smith comments,
- No man has written, pro or con, on the subject of Christ’s resurrection, without finding himself compelled to face this problem of Joseph’s empty tomb. That the tomb was empty on Sunday morning is recognized by everyone, no matter how radical a critic he may be; however antisupernatural in all his personal convictions, he never dares to say that the body was still resting in the tomb, however he might attempt to explain the fact that the tomb must have been empty.
Most amazing of all, the Jewish authorities themselves never questioned the report of the Roman guards that the tomb was empty (Matt. 28:11-15). They knew that the guards would never have come back with such a story unless they were reporting an indisputable fact. However, because of the seriousness of the situation, it is also likely that the authorities would have gone to the tomb to personally examine it. Once they saw that the tomb was empty, they knew they had problems. Thus, their only recourse was to bribe the guards to lie about the disciples stealing the body. (Of course, if the guards were really asleep, how did they know it was the disciples who took the body?)
In light of all this, what do you think Christ’s enemies would have done once the apostles proclaimed that the grave was empty and that Christ was resurrected? It is incredible, with the apostles preaching throughout Jerusalem both day and night that Christ had risen from the dead, that His enemies would not have produced the body had they been able to do so. (See Acts 4:1-2, 13-21; 5:14-30, 42.) Indeed, there is little doubt that the most exhaustive search would have been made to recover the body. But they never could find it. And we know it couldn’t have been stolen because of the Roman guard. The body of Jesus was certainly in the tomb when the guard was placed.
Indeed, had any doubts existed concerning the empty tomb, reports would certainly have been widely circulated. But there were none. Prominent lawyer J. N. D. Anderson observes:
- It is also noteworthy in this context that all the references to the empty tomb come in the gospels, which were written for Christians who wanted to know the facts. In the public preaching to those who were not yet convinced, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, there was an insistent emphasis on the resurrection, but not a single reference to the tomb. For this I can see only one explanation. There was no point in speaking of the empty tomb, for everyone – friend and foe alike – knew that it was empty. The only points worth arguing about were why it was empty and what its emptiness proved.
- If Jesus had not arisen, there would have been evidence that he had not. His enemies would have sought and found this evidence, but the apostles went up and down the very city where he had been crucified and proclaimed right to the faces of his slayers that he had been raised, and no one could produce evidence to the contrary.
Further evidence that the empty tomb signifies Jesus’ resurrection is supplied by the odd position of the grave clothes which were found in a cocoon-like shape. This explains why, when John first looked into the empty tomb, “He saw and believed” (John 20:8). He believed because he had little choice. A human body cannot be removed from grave clothes having 75 pounds of embalming spices – not without severely disturbing them. Michael Green, who read classics at Oxford and theology at Cambridge, discusses John’s account: “No wonder they were convinced and awed. No grave robber would have been able to enact so remarkable a thing. Nor would it have entered his head. He would simply have taken the body, grave clothes and all.”
But there is one more proof of the empty tomb. It is human nature to venerate the burial places of unparalleled religious leaders. Throughout the history of mankind, religious pilgrimages are often made to special shrines honoring a dead prophet – especially his burial place. Jews have the grave of Abraham in Hebron. Muslims have their yearly pilgrimage to Mecca to honor Muhammad. Every year Hindus and Buddhists visit the graves of their noted gurus. Look at the graves of John F. Kennedy or even Elvis Presley. But such has never occurred for Jesus, not in the entire history of Christianity. Why? What could explain this exception to the rule? As former skeptic Frank Morison notes,
- Finally, and this to my mind carried conclusive weight, we cannot find in the contemporary records any trace of a tomb or shrine becoming the center of veneration or worship on the ground that it contained the relics of Jesus. This is inconceivable if it was ever seriously stated at the time that Jesus was really buried elsewhere than in the vacant tomb. Rumor would have asserted a hundred suppositious places where the remains really lay, and pilgrimages innumerable would have been made to them.
When Christians go to see Christ’s tomb in Israel, everyone knows they go to see an empty tomb. What other religious people on earth do this?
In his historical analysis, The Son Rises, Dr. William Lane Craig summarizes ten separate lines of evidence for the empty tomb and then shows how all naturalistic theories of the last 2,000 years have failed to explain it. He observes, “As D. H. Van Daalen has pointed out, it is extremely difficult to object to the empty tomb on historical grounds; those who deny it do so on the basis of theological or philosophical assumptions (like the assumption that miracles are impossible)…. The weight of the evidence [is] solidly in favor of the historical fact that Jesus’ tomb was found empty….”
In conclusion, no one can logically hold the slightest doubt that the tomb of Jesus Christ was empty – which occurred in spite of everyone knowing its exact location, in spite of the Roman guard and seal, and in spite of the best attempts of Jesus’ enemies to locate the body.
Virtually every theory ever proposed to explain the empty tomb [e.g., the “swoon,” “stolen body,” “hallucination,” “evaporation,” “mistaken identity,” and “wrong tomb” theories; almost no historian or biblical critic accepts such theories as credible today], other than the resurrection of Christ, is considerably more difficult to believe than the resurrection itself. This indicates that the only possible reason the tomb was empty is what Christians everywhere have maintained for 2,000 years – Christ literally rose physically from the dead.
- In Wilbur M. Smith, The Supernaturalness of Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1974), rpt. p. 190, emphasis added, citing Guignebert, Jesus (New York, 1935), p. 516.
-  Gary Habermas, Ancient Evidence for the Life of Jesus: Historical Records of His Death and Resurrection (New York: Nelson, 1984), pp. 169-70; cf., 87-98.
- Pierre Barbet, MD, A Doctor at Calvary (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963); E. Symes Thompson, MD, On the Physical Cause of the Death of Christ.
- Clifford Wilson, The Trials of Jesus Christ (Melbourne, Australia: Pacific College of Graduate Studies, 1986).
- Michael Green, The Empty Cross of Jesus (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1984), pp. 22-23.
- Ibid., p. 93.
- Josh McDowell, Evidence that Demands a Verdict, rev. ed. (San Bernardino, CA: Here’s Life Publishers, 1979), p. 7.
- Merrill Tenney, The Reality of the Resurrection (Chicago: Moody Press, 1972), p.110; cf., McDowell, Evidence, p. 208.
- McDowell, Evidence, p. 216.
- Ibid., pp. 212-13, emphasis added.
- Ibid., p. 213.
- Ibid., p. 214.
- Wilbur M. Smith, Therefore Stand: Christian Apologetics (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1972), pp. 373-74.
- Josh McDowell, More Than a Carpenter (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale/Living Books, 1983), pp. 91-92.
- J.N.D. Anderson, Christianity: The Witness of History (London: Tyndale Press, 1970), p. 96.
- R. A. Torrey, “The Certainty and Importance of the Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the Dead,” in Charles L. Feinberg, ed., The Fundamentals (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1964), p. 274.
- Green, The Empty Cross of Jesus, p. 98.
- Frank Morison, Who Moved the Stone? (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1969), p. 94.
- William Lane Craig. The Son Rises: Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus (Chicago: Moody Press, 1981), p. 84.